Dyeing is the process of coloring different types of fiber, yarn, fabric with different types of dyes. The dyeing process is one of the important chapters in textile processing. Here different types of dyeing defects or faults occur. Sometimes we do not follow the proper process for the right fiber or yarn or fabric. In that case, these faults occur. We discussing the dyeing defects causes and remedies here.
If we follow the right process for the right fiber, yarn, or fabric, no problem will happen. Now…
Dyeing defects or faults:
The major or most common faults are discussing below. Firstly the major dyeing faults are given below:
- Uneven Dyeing.
- Running shade or part to part shade variation or meter to meter shade variation.
- Color spot.
- Crease mark
- Softener spot
- Wrinkle mark
- Patchy dyeing effect.
- Batch to batch shade variation
- Roll to roll shade variation
- Caustic spot
- Long Dye mark
- Fail of fastness property.
Dyeing defects causes and remedies:
Dyeing defects causes and remedies are discussing here for a clear concept.
- Uneven scouring & bleaching: That means the absorbency and whiteness of different portions of the fabric are different.
- Color mixing is not proper.
- Missing of leveling agent
- Improper color dossing: That means different dye stuffs has different dosing requirement. Sometimes it not done properly by dyeing operators.
- Lack of proper migration.
- If Alkali dosing is improper.
- Uneven Heat setting: For making the fabric dimensionally stable needs a heat setting. The high variation of different chamber temperatures of the heat setting machine causes uneven heat setting.
- When dyeing machine operation is not proper.
- Use proper chemicals, and set proper time and temperature for even scouring and bleaching.
- Mix the color properly. Use a leveling agent during mixing is better to practice.
- Set up the proper leveling agent for better leveling of dyes.
- Dossing the color in a proper way.
- Make sure proper alkali dosing, according to dye and fabric behavior.
- Ensure even heat setting.
- Use the skilled operator for better operation.
Solution after Uneven dyeing:
- There is no process without redyeing / steeping the fabric.
Running shade or part to part shade variation or meter to meter shade variation.
- Higher Cycle time than standard.
- When the use of alkali according to shade% is improper.
- Uneven Pretreatment.
- Improper dyes and chemical dosing.
- Combination of different dye brand.
- Water hardness.
- Wrong dyeing process.
- Set up a right cycle time(2.5 -3.0)
- Use correct ratio for alkali and dye shade%.
- Make the scouring and bleaching even.
- Sure proper dyes and chemicals dossing process.
- Create a color combination with a same brand.
- Confirm soft water
- Ensure the correct dyeing process.
- Improper dye mixing process.
- Without filtering the dye solution.
- Improper migration of dyestuff.
- Unclean machine during dyeing start.
- Mixing dyes in cold water.
- Use the correct mixing process according to dye behavior.
- Filter dye solution properly.
- Add migration at 80’c or 90’c in dyeing process.
- Clean the machine properly before load the fabric.
- Allows mix the dyes in hot water.
- Low cycle time.
- Loading the fabric in rope form.
- Improper adjustment of reel speed and pump pressure.
- Lower stitch length. Means more compact fabric.
- Improper heat-setting for heavy GSM fabric.
- without using the lubricating agent.
- Loading the fabric at high speed.
- Adjust the proper cycle time. It may be 2.5 to 3 min
- Loading the fabric in straight form.
- Should not make the fabric compact.
- Proper heat-setting for heavy GSM fabric.
- Inject the lubricant before loading the fabric. Use the lubricant during. scouring, Dyeing, and soaping.
- Load the fabric with minimum machine speed.
- Improper mixing of softener.
- Mixing softener in cold water.
- Applicating of softener without filtering.
- Unloading the fabric with softener foam.
- Incorrect PH adjustment.
- Entanglement of fabric during application of softener on fabric.
- Applying the softener without cleaning the colored water.
- Use proper mixing process of softener.
- Mix the softener in high temperature. Above 80’C.
- Filter the softener solution properly.
- Fill the machine full to avoid foam during unloading the fabric.
- Ph should be 5 during application of softener.
- Check the fabric more and set proper reed speed and pump pressure to avoid entanglement.
- Start the applying the softener after clean the water properly.
- Dyeing the fabric in rope form
- Shock cooling of synthetic material in textile.
- Entanglement of fabric at high temperature.
- Stop the fabric with entanglement for long time
- Ensure dyeing in straight form.
- Stop the shock cooling of synthetic material.
- Avoid entanglement at high temperature.
- Should not stop the fabric with rope form for long time.
Batch to batch shade variation
- Setting different cycle times for the different batches.
- Making different quantity batch.
- Dyeing different batches in different machines.
- Using different chemical dossing %.
- Different brand dyes.
- Using different liquor ratio.
- Temperature fluctuation.
- Dossing time variation of dyes and chemicals.
- Batch to batch pretreatment variation.
- Variation of the dye lot.
- Ensure the same cycle time for all batches.
- Make the same quantity of fabric for all batches.
- Should dye in the same machine to avoid this problem.
- Use the same dyes and chemicals dossing%.
- Dyes Brand should be the same.
- The liquor ratio should be the same.
- Even temperature control.
- The pretreatment process should be the same.
- Conforme same dye lot.
Roll to roll shade variation
- Lot mixing in the same order.
- Loading variation of the different nozzle of dyeing machine.
- Cycle time variation of the different nozzle.
- Nozzle to Nozzle real speed variation.
- Improper nozzle pressure of dyeing machine.
- Uneven Pretreatment.
- Maintain the same lot for total order.
- Ensure same doading for all nozzle.
- Keep cycle time same for all nozzle.
- Should keep Equal reel speed for all nozzle of dyeing machine.
- Proper nozzle pressure in every nozzle.
- Correct pretreatment.
- Improper caustic mixing.
- For injection of caustic during dyeing process.
- Dossing caustic at high temperature.
- Lack of proper filtration before dosing.
- Use higer concentration of caustic.
- Ensure Proper caustic mixing
- Use linear dossing for caustic.
- Dossing caustic at normal temperature.
- Filter the caustic solution before dossing.
- Use correct concentration of caustic.
Long Dye mark
- Entangle of fabric during dyeing.
- Dyeing of fabrc in ropr form.
- Lower cycle time.
- Faulty migration.
- Dyeing fabric without heatset
- Prevent fabric form entangle.
- Fabric should be straight during dyeing.
- Maintain porper cycle time.
- Correct migration process.
- Heat set the fabric to stable the fabric.
Fail of fastness property
- Keeping loose dyes.
- Improper enzyme treatment.
- without fixing agent.
- Higher shade %.
- Use local dyes and chemicals.
- Soaping at high temperature to remove loose dyes.
- Ensure proper enzyme treatment.
- Use fixing agent.
- Keep lower shade %.
- Use branded dyes and chemical.
This is the most common and updated list of dyeing defects causes and remedies. All hte solutions are applied. We can use it in the production process.
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