100% Cotton Fabric Knitting Dyeing Process (Reactive dye), Flow Chart With Complete Practical Documentation 2021

Cotton is the most popular useable fiber in the world. Here we discuss the 100% cotton fabric knitting dyeing process, dyeing process with reactive dye, finishing process, and flow chart of knitting, dyeing, and finishing process with complete practical documentation which I did recently. Dyeing cotton fabric at home is also a common practice in the present world.

cotton fabric knitting dyeing process
100% finish fabric of the subjective process

Practical Documentation of a 100% cotton Heavy single jersey fabric knitting dyeing (color) process:

Here I am sharing one of the knitting dyeing processes with all documents that I did at the factory level. If you use this parameter at the factory level, you will get the same result. Let’s enjoy…..

Target parameter:

Fabric type Heavy Single Jercy
Composition100% organic cotton
Color Name /Pantone191008tcx
Shade %0.02
Repaired  Diameter150 CM (Open)
Required GSM280
Special NoteThe special fabric needs special care to avoid crease mark, long mark

Overall 100% cotton Heavy single jercy fabric knitting dyeing and finishing process flow chart:

To get the target fabric we set a target route of the overall process which I have given below-

cotton fabric knitting dyeing process flow chart
cotton fabric knitting dyeing process flow chart

100% cotton fabric knitting process

The step by step cotton fabric knitting process are discussing here

Imported yarn parameter:

Yarn count and Type24 S/2  organic cotton
Yarn Composition100% organic cotton
Yarn CompositionReported company
Yarn BrandReported company

Knitting setting Parameter:

The setting parameter of knitting to get our target fabric are in below table.

Machine Dia and Gauge30 & 16
Total Needle1500
Stitch length39
Machine BrandJiun Long
Machine RPM17

Parameter after Knitting of 100% cotton heavy jercy fabric:

After completing knitting we get the fabric parameter are stated below table.

Grey fabric width190 cm (Open)
Gray GSM240

100% cotton fabric dyeing process with reactive dye:

Here we have completed knitting of this heavy jersey fabric.  Now we have the dye the fabric. We discussing below all the flow processes of dyeing which we did for this batch.

Cotton fabric dyeing process flow Chart:

Cotton fabric dyeing process flow Chart
Cotton fabric dyeing process flow Chart

Short description of cotton fabric dyeing process flow chart:

I am giving here a short description for a better understanding of all the processes.

Batching:

Knitted fabric is collected from the knitting gray store and create a batch here. Batch means the prepared fabric to dyeable format. Knitting is done in roll to roll. Here fabric creates a rope according to the loading capacity of the dyeing machine. A batch card is also created for storing all the knitting and dyeing process parameters.

Heat Setting for the 100% cotton Heavy single jersey  knitted fabric with a practical example:

Heat setting is the process of a starter machine to control the dimensional stability of the fabric. This process is added to control the mechanical deformation of a knitted fabric like crease mark, long mark, Fabric side twisting, etc.  This process is not needed for all the fabric. It is not possible to state all the fabric types. I am giving only some of the fabric which is in my mind right now.

Heat set  is done for the fabric category which is given below table:

Fabric  TypeGSM Range
Elastane / lycra fabricAll gsm fabric
Single jersey fabric 180 and above
Fleace / terry350 and above
100% polyester fabric/ PC fabricAll gsm fabric
Special constructional fabricAll gsm fabric( Depends on target swatch)
All types of CVC fabricAll GSM (Which need polyester part dyeing)
Tightly knitted fabricAll Gsm fabric
  
fabric category for heat setting

Setting parameter of this 100% heavy single jersey cotton fabric and result:

Temperature : 195’C

Over feed            : 20%

Machine speed   : 25

Padder pressure :  1st padder- 3, 2nd padder- 2

Ist batch liquid    :  Lubricant

2nd Batch Liquid  :  Lubricant

Before GSM         :  263

After  GSM           : 256

Setting parameter nameBefore heat setSetting In stenter machineAfter heat set
Fabric diameter178150150
    
Loading to dyeing machine:

It is the 4th step of the dyeing process. Lubricant is injected into the machine for avoiding friction between the machine and the fabric surface. Then load the fabric. Cycle time, Pump pressure, Reel speed, Nozzle pressure setting controls here.

Scouring and Bleaching:

Normally scouring and bleaching are two different processes in oven fabric. But for knitting fabric, it is done in the same batch. For cotton fabric caustic soda, and hydrogen peroxide uses for scouring and bleaching here.

Bio Polishing:

This is the process to remove the hairiness of the fabric surface. Bio polishing is done after the scouring and bleaching state. For special cases, it is also done after dyeing.

It is noted that excess dosing of enzymes can damage the fabric strength.

Dyeing:

A reactive dyeing process is used here. This is one of the best sensitive fabrics (Heavy jersey).  So that it needs special care to get better results. This is why we use a perfect dyeing process. The result of this fabric dyeing process is good to use. I am personally using this process in my factory for better results.

After-treatment:

In this stage, neutralization is done. Then the unfixed dyes are removed by a soaping agent. Better or high-temperature soaping will give you better fastness property. But here the dye shade% is low. So that no need to high soaping. Here core neutralizer is used to get better results. But we can also use only ascitic acid for naturalization.

Special note For Cotton heavy jersey fabric:  Need proper heat setting. Lubricant must have to inject before loading the fabric. The cycle time range will be 2min-3min(Not below 2min).

Dyeing Recipe of 100% cotton fabric:

Here I gave the chemical agent name.  Because I am not sharing the original brand name. The dossing depends on the dyes and chemical supplier.

Chemical NameG/L
Detergent2.00  
Anti-creasing agent2.00
Sequestering agent1.00
Peroxide stabilizer2.00
Caustic Soda2.00
H2O21.00
  
Peroxide killer0.15
Acid (Neutralizing)0.7
  
  
Leveling agent2.00
Anti-creasing agent2.00
Sequestering agent0.5
Gold SE0.0160%
Lt Red SE0.0030%
lt Blue SE0.0018%
  
Salt20 
Soda Ash Lt
Acid (Neutralizing) 
Soaping Agent0.80
          Anti-creasing agent1.00
Leveling agent2.00
  
Acitic acid(cotrao ph 5)0.10
Softener1.00
dyeing recipe

Dyeing process 100% cotton fabric step by step:

Color Name        :

Batch quantity   : 25kg

Dyeing Type        : Reactive dyeing

M:L                       : 1: 7

Enzyme Type       : Acid Enzyme

Cycle Time           : 2.5 min

Special Note :Care full about the process. Careful about crease mark,     long mark, uneven etc.

Scouring & Bleaching

Detergent + Anti-creasing agent = Inject

Temp 40c*= Fabric Load

Caustic soda Dosing

Temperature 60c*20 Minute

Temperature 70c

Sequestering agent + H2O2 Dosing 5 Minute

Temp to  98’C & run 40 Minute

Cooling at 78’C

Sample check

If sample ok then Drain

Normal Hot 70*10

Peroxide killer  60*10 Minute

Drain

Naturalization with acid

Drain

Wash 10 min

Dyeing

Leveling PH check 6.20

Leveling Dosing 60c 3 Minute

Color Dosing 30 Mints

Runtime 20 mint

Salt Dosing 10 Minute

Runtime 10 Minute

Salt Sample check + Fabric Quality Check

1st 1% Soda dosing 15 minute

Runtime 15 minute

2nd 99% % Soda dosing 20  minute

Runtime 20 minute

Sample check If ok then

Bath Drop

After Treatment

Soaping

Hot wash

Neutralizer

Dran wash

Soaping

Wash clear

Ph control 5

Softener

Unload

Finishing Process of 100% cotton heavy single jersey fabric:

Now we completed dyeing this fabric. Now we discuss the finishing process and parameter step by step below:

Finishing flow chart of cotton heavy single jersey fabric:

Short Description of the flow process stages for better understanding:

Slitting:

After knitting the fabric we get it as a tube format fabric. But we have to use an open stenter and compacting machine to get better results. So that the fabric needs to open. This is why we use this machine to open this fabric.

Setting parameter And result:

Machine speed40
Padder Pressure1.5
Fabric In Diameter30 Cm (Tube)
Fabric Out Diameter150 Cm ( open)

Stenter:

We dry the fabric and control the dia, GSM, and shrinkage.  For this, we need to appropriate setting. I am giving the setting which I did for this batch

Setting parameter:

Stenter Parameter
SettingSpeed 16
Dia 155
Tem 120
Overfeed 59%
Padder Pressure3+2
After StenterDia 152
GSM 253
ShrinkageLength 
Width 
Spirality 

Compacting:

Full dia, gsm, and shrinkage is controlled here. Better appearance and looking are done here. The overall quality of dyeing is control here.

I am giving the parameter which I did for the subjective batch.

Compacting Parameter
Common SettingOverfeed35% 
Speed/RPM14
Temp120
Steam Pressure30
TopicTargetBeforesettingafter
Dia 150 152 150 150
Gsm 280 253 264
Shrinkage
 Tumble dryLength-3% 
Width-6% 
Spirality2% 

Now the fabric is sent to the testing lab for all the test reports.

The finish fabric picture of this cotton fabric knitting dyeing process

The testing report of 100% cotton fabric:

How many Tests will be done on the fabric depends on the buyer’s requirement? This batch is done for development so that the basic testing is done here. We did the test.

  1. Dimensional Stability To Washing 
  2. Spirality After Washing 
  3. Color Fastness to Washing 
  4. Color Fastness to Rubbing 
  5. Color Fastness to Water 
  6. Color Fastness to Perspiration 
  7. Color Fastness To Artificial Light 
  8. Mass Per Unit Area 
  9. Fiber Analysis 

Knitting and dyeing Department: Practical Textile

Contract Person:  

Eng. MK Islam

CEO of  Practical Textile

admin@practicaltextile.com

Sample Detail: 

Sample  Submitted for Testing  : 09 August 2021 ,Time:11:00am 

Test Period: 09 August 2021 to 11 August 2021 

Turn Around Time: 03 Day’s 

No Of Sample Received: Two (02) Meter 

Sample Description & Color Name: Knitted of S/J Fabric Sample Marked as  

Fiber Content 100% Cotton  

Fabric Weight: 280 GSM 

Care Ins

Test Program: Package Test 

Buyer Name: Knitting and Dyeing development of Practical Textile

Conclusion of Test Results: 

Sl. No. Test Name Results  (A)
01 Dimensional Stability To Washing Pass
02 Spirality After Washing Pass
03 Color Fastness to Washing Pass
04 Color Fastness to Rubbing Pass
05 Color Fastness to Water Pass
06 Color Fastness to Perspiration Pass
07 Color Fastness To Artificial Light Pass
08 Mass Per Unit Area Fail
09 Fiber Analysis Pass
test result

TEST RESULTS DESCRIPTION

01. Dimensional Stability To Washing 

Test Method: DIN EN ISO 6330:2012 

Test Condition: Mild Program, Machine wash@40°C, Line Dry, Used Washing Machine Miele, 25 gram Arial Reference Detergent With  2.0kg Load. 

Sample (A) After One Wash
Direction Result Client Requirement
Length -2.8% ±4%
Width +0.4% 

Remark: (+) Means Extension And (-) Means Shrinkage 

02.Spirality After Washing 

Test Method: ISO 16322-2;2005 

Test Condition: Mild Program, Machine wash@40°C, Line Dry, Used Washing Machine Miele, 25 gram Arial Reference Detergent With  2.0kg Load. 

Sample (A) Result (After One Wash) Client Requirement
Spirality 4.0% 3% or 3cm

03. Color Fastness To Washing 

Test Method: DIN EN ISO 105 CO6-A1M 

Test Condition: Temperature At 40ºC, Time 30 Min, Detergent 4gm/L ECE, Sodium Per Borate: 1g/l With 10 Pcs Steel Balls. 

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
Color Change 3-4
Color Staining 3-4
-Acetate 4-5
-Cotton 4-5
-Nylon 4-5
-Polyester 4-5
-Acrylic 4-5
-Wool 4-5

04. Color Fastness To Rubbing 

Test Method: DIN EN ISO 105 X12 :2016 

Test Stage: As Received Stage

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
Dry Rub 4-5 3-4
Wet Rub 4-5 3

05. Color Fastness To Water 

Test Method: DIN EN ISO 105 E01:2013 

Test Condition: Temperature at 37±2ºC, Time 4 hours. 

Sample(A) Result Client Requirement
Color Change 4-5 4-5
Color staining 4
-Acetate 4-5
-Cotton 4-5
-Nylon 4-5
-Polyester 4-5
-Acrylic 4-5
-wool 4-5

06. Color Fastness To Perspiration 

Test Method: DIN EN ISO 105 E04:2013 

Test Condition: Temperature At 37±2ºC, Time 4 Hours. 

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
Acid Alkaline
Color Change 3-4
Color Staining 3-4
-Acetate 4-5 4-5
-Cotton 4-5 4-5
-Nylon 4-5 4-5
-Polyester 4-5 4-5
-Acrylic 4-5 4-5
-Wool 4-5 4-5

07. Color Fastness To Artificial Light 

Test Method: DIN EN ISO 105 B02:2014, Air Cool Xenon, Arc Lamp. 

Result Client Requirement
Sample (A)
Up to Grade 4 (Blue wool scale) 3-4

  08. Mass Per Unit Area 

Test Method: ISO 3801: 1977,Method 5 

Test Stage: As Received Stage

Sample(A) Result Client Requirement 
Average 252.2 g/m280 g/m2(±5%)

09. Fiber Analysis 

Test Method: ISO 1833:2006 

Test Condition: As Received Stage 

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
Identification of fibers Cotton +3% to -3% 
Analyzed fibers Cotton 100% 100% Cotton 
Note: Based On Moisture Regain Value According To Regulation ( EU ) No 1007/2011

Overall Comments of 100% cotton fabric knitting and dyeing process:

After analyzing all the test reports I can say that the GSM of the fabric is low. Normally we tolerate +/-  5%.  Bet here we get -10%. This is not in an acceptable range.

Solution:  There are many ways to solve the problem.

First, we can Re compacting the fabric with the setting

Over feed= 50%

 Diameter setting = 145cm

I think it will give better results. But must you have to think about shrinkage?

Secondly, we can change the yarn count to get required result.

Conclusion:

I am sharing here my full cotton fabric knitting and dying process with a flow chart. A complete practical Gide line is available here. Of course, everyone can ask me any process-related question in the comment section. I will answer the entire question.  As a textile engineer, I think I can solve the problems from my 10years of practical experience.

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