Dyeing Of Nylon black With Acid Dyes Complete Practical Documentation 2021

The dyeing of nylon is a special case in textile trends. Nylon fabric is used as an alternative to silk or hemp. Nylon is a reported member of its synthetic family. The dyeing of nylon with acid dyes is the most used practice in the textile industry. Yes, we are on right track to knowing about knitting, dyeing, finishing with complete practical documentation. Here I am sharing my most recent practical experience on dyeing of nylon.

Discussing practical experiment for dyeing of nylon:

  • Knitting and yarn parameter of nylon fabric
  • Knitting flow chart
  • Dyeing flow chart
  • Dyeing process
  • Finishing flow chart
  • Finishing porcess
  • 11 Testing report of nylon fabric
  • Final comments
  • All step description
Dyeing of nylon
The experimental finish fabric.

Dyeing of nylon knit fabric (single jersey) with practical documentation

Here I am sharing the knitting dyeing process of nylon knit single jersey fabric with a recent experiment. If you use the parameter you will get the same result which I got.

Target Parameter of nylon fabric:

Fabric typeLycra Single Jersey
Composition856% poliamide+ 15% Elastone
Color Name /PantoneDark Gray
Shade %0.015
Repaired  Diameter150 CM (Open)
Required GSM180
Special NoteThe special fabric needs special care ph and fabric handleing
Table of target parameters of nylon fabric

 Estimated target process flow chart of Nylon fabric:

target process flow chart of nylon fabric dyeing
Target process flow chart

Knitting of Nylon fabric:

Imported yarn parameter of nylon:

We imported yarn from a reputed company for this cotton tencil blend fabric. I am sharing the below parameter.

Yarn count and Type100D/36F Nylon+30Dly
Yarn Composition100% Polyamide+100% Elastone
Yarn BrandA Reported Company

Knitting setting Parameter of Nylon fabric:

The setting parameter of knitting to get our target fabric is in the below table.

Setting parameterSetting
Machine Dia and Gauge30 & 28
Total Needle2640
Stitch length29
Machine BrandFukuhara
Machine RPM19
table of knitting setting parameter

Parameter after Knitting of cotton tencil blends fabric:

After completing knitting we get the fabric parameter are stated below table.

Setting parameterResutent parameter
Grey fabric width(Dia)164 cm (Open)
Gray GSM280
After knitting parameter table

Dyeing of Nylon Black with acid dyes:

Here we have completed knitting of this nylon fabric.  Now we have the dye the fabric. We discussing below all the flow processes of dyeing which we have done for this batch.

Dyeing of nylon process flow Chart:

Dyeing of nylon process flow chart
Dyeing of nylon process flow chart

Short description of cotton fabric dyeing process flow chart:

I am giving here a short description for a better understanding of all the processes.

Batching:

Knitted fabric is collected from the knitting gray store and create a batch here. Batch means they prepared fabric in a dyeable format. Knitting is done in roll to roll. Here fabric creates a rope according to the loading capacity of the dyeing machine. A batch card is also created for storing all the knitting and dyeing process parameters.

Heat Setting for the 100% cotton Heavy single jersey  knitted fabric with a practical example:

Heat setting is the process of a stenter machine to control the dimensional stability of the fabric. This process is added to control the mechanical deformation of a knitted fabric like crease mark, long mark, Fabric side twisting, etc.  This process is not needed for all the fabric. It is not possible to state all the fabric types. I am giving only some of the fabric which is in my mind right now.

Heat set  is done for the fabric which is given below table:
Fabric Type need to heat setGSM range
Elastone / lycra fabricAll gsm fabric
Single jercy fabric 180 and above
Fleace / terry350 and above
100% polyester fabric/ PC fabricAll gsm fabric
Special constructional fabricAll gsm fabric( Depends on target swatch)
All type CVC fabricAll GSM (Which need polyester part dyeing)
Tightly knitted fabricAll Gsm fabric
  
Heat Setting parameter of this nylon fabric and result:

Temperature      : 180’C

Over feed            : 20%

Machine speed   : 20

Padder pressure :  1st padder- 3, 2nd padder- 2

Ist batch liquid    :  Lubricant & oil remover

2nd Batch Liquid  :  Lubricant

Before GSM         :  258

After  GSM           : 256

Setting parameter nameBefore heat setSetting In stenter machineAfter heat set
Fabric diameter132160155
    

Loading to dyeing machine:

It is the 4th step of the dyeing process. Lubricant is injected into the machine for avoiding friction between the machine and the fabric surface. Then load the fabric. Cycle time, Pump pressure, Reel speed, Nozzle pressure setting controls here.

Scouring and Bleaching:

Normally scouring and bleaching are two different processes in oven fabric. But for knitting fabric, is done in the same batch. For the dyeing of nylon, we use soda ash light, and hydrogen peroxide uses for scouring and bleaching here.

Dyeing:

An Acid dyeing process is used here. This is one of the best sensitive fabrics (nylon/polyamide).  So that it needs special care to get better results. This is why we use a perfect dyeing process. The result of this fabric dyeing process is good to use. I am personally using this process in my factory for better results.

After-treatment:

In this stage, neutralization is done. Then the unfixed dyes are removed by a soaping agent. Better or high-temperature soaping will give you better fastness property. But here the dye shade% is low. So that no need to high soaping. Here core neutralizer is used to get better results. But we can also use only acetic acid for naturalization.

Special note For dyeing of nylon fabric :

  Over sure about the PH of the dye bath and other stages, Need proper heat setting. Lubricant must have to inject before loading the fabric. The cycle time range will be 2min-3min (Not below 2min).

Dyeing of nylon fabric recipe:

Here I gave the chemical agent name.  Because I am not sharing the original brand name. The dossing depends on the dyes and chemical suppliers.

Chemical NameG/L
Detergent2.00  
Oxalic acid0.5
  
Anti-creasing agent2.00
Sequestering agent1.00
Peroxide stabilizer2.00
Soda Ash light4.00
H2O22.50
  
Peroxide killer0.15
Acid (Neutralizing)0.7
  
  
Leveling agent Nylon2.00
Anti-creasing agent2.00
  
Nylon Black3.4%
  
Soaping Agent Of Nylon0.80
  
Fixing agent (Nynon)1.0
  
Nylon softener0.10
  

Dyeing process 100% cotton fabric step by step:

Color Name        : Black

Batch quantity   : 10kg

Dyeing Type        : Acid Dyeing.

M:L                       : 1: 10

Enzyme Type       : No

Cycle Time           : 2.5 min

Special Note : Care full about PH and the process

Scouring & Bleaching

Detergent + Anti-creasing agent = Inject

Temp 40c*= Fabric Load

Soda ash light  Dosing

Temperature 60c*20 Minute

Temperature 70c

Sequestering agent + H2O2 Dosing 5 Minute

Temp to  95’C & run 50 Minute

Cooling at 78’C

Sample check

If sample ok then Drain

Normal Hot 70*10

Peroxide killer  60*10 Minute

Drain

Naturalization with acid

Drain

Wash 10 min

Dyeing

Levelling (PH 4.50-5.0)

Dyes Dosing 10 minute Tempeture 400c

Tempeture Increase 980c/10c

Runtime 30 minute

Colling 800c/10c

Shade check

If ok then Bath Drop

Cold rinse 10 minute

Soaping agent (Nylon) 2g/l (pH5.00)

Tempeture 80*15 minute

Cold wash10 minute

Nylon fixing agent  2 g/l

Cold water

Softener (Nylon 1g/l)  (pH 5.00-5.50)

Unload

Finishing Process of nylon dyed fabric:

Now we completed dyeing this fabric. Now we discuss the finishing process and parameter step by step below:

Finishing flow chart of nylon fabric:

Short Description of the flow process stages for better understanding:

Slitting:

After dyeing the fabric we get it as a tube format fabric. But we have to use an open stenter and compacting machine to get a better result. So that the fabric needs to open. This is why we use this machine to open this fabric.

Setting parameter And result:
Machine speed40
Padder Pressure1.5
Fabric In Diameter30 Cm (Tube)
Fabric Out Diameter150 Cm ( open)

Stenter of nyon dyed fabric:

We dry the fabric and control the diameter, GSM, and shrinkage.  For this, we need to appropriate setting. I am giving the setting which I did for this batch

Setting parameter of stenter :

Setting parameterSetting
Speed14
Diameter170
Temperature100’C
Overfeed50%
Padder pressure3+2
After stenter Result
Fabric diameter150
GSM175
Stenter parameter of nylon fabric finishing

Compacting nylon finishing fabric:

Full dia, gsm, and shrinkage is controlled here. Better appearance and looking are done here. The overall quality of dyeing is control here.

I am giving the parameter which I did for the subjective batch.

Compacting Parameter   
Common SettingOverfeed35%   
 Speed/RPM16  
 Temp110  
 Steam Pressure30  
TopicTargetBeforesettingafter
Dia 150150 155148
Gsm180 175 180
Shrinkage    
 Tumble dryLength-3%   
 Width-2%   
Spirality 2%   
Compacting of nylon finishing

Special Note: Wash GSM = 194

Now the fabric is sent to the testing lab for all the test reports.

11 Best testing report of Nylon fabric dyenig

How many Tests will be done on the fabric depends on the buyer’s requirement? This batch is done for development so that the basic testing is done here. We did the best need 11 tests.

1. Dimensional Stability to Washing 
2. Twisting / Spirality 
3. Bursting Strength 
4. Pilling Resistance 
5. Mass per unit area 
6. Color Fastness to Washing 
7. Color Fastness to Rubbing 
8. Color Fastness to Water 
9. Color Fastness to Perspiration 
10. Fiber Analysis 
11. PHValue of Aqueous Extract 
Test report chart of nylon fabric

DATE: 07 August 2021

Applicant Address:  Knitting and dyeing development, Practical Textile

Contract Name:

M.K. Islam

CEO of Practical Textile

admin@practicaltextile.com

Sample Details: 

Sample Received : 06 August 2021,Time:03:00pm 

Test Period : 06 August 2021 to 07 August 2021 

Turn Around Time : 02 Days 

  Sample Description & Color Name :Color 001 Black  

Fiber Declaration: Nylon + Elastane 

Fabric Weight: 180 GSM 

Followed Care Instruction: 

Test Program: Package Test 

Buyer Name: Practical Textile

Conclusion of Test Results: 

S.L No Parameter Test Method Result   (A)Requirement Page
01 Dimensional Stability to Washing ISO 6330Pass ±5% 3
02 Twisting / Spirality Method: 2020 Pass 3% 3
03 Bursting Strength ISO 13938-2:1999 Pass 300 kPa 3
04 Pilling Resistance ISO 12945-2:2020 Pass 3
05 Mass per unit area EN 12127:1997 Fail ±3% 3
06 Color Fastness to Washing ISO 105 C08: 2010 Pass C.C = 4  C.S = 44
07 Color Fastness to Rubbing ISO 105×12: 2016 Pass Dry = 4  Wet = 3 4
08 Color Fastness to Water ISO 105 E01: 2013 Pass C.C = 4   C.S = 4 4
09 Color Fastness to Perspiration ISO 105 E04: 2013 Pass C.C = 4  C.S = 4 4
10 Fiber Analysis ISO 1833:2011 STR ±3% 5
11 PHValue of Aqueous Extract EN ISO 3071:2020 Pass 4.0-7.5 5

STR= See the test result. 

TEST RESULTS 

01. Dimensional Stability To Washing 

Test Method: ISO 6330:2012

Test Condition: Normal Program, Machine Wash @40ºC, Line Dry, Used Domestic Washing Machine Miele @ 1400RPM, Washing  Time 02.00 Hours, Ariel Reference Detergent Solution With 4.0 Kg Load. 

Sample (A) After One Wash
Direction Result Client Requirement
Length (avg) -4.0% ±5% 
Width(avg) -1.2%

Remark: (+) Means extension and (-) means shrinkage 

02. Spirality / Twisting 

Test Method :

Test Condition: Normal Program, Machine Wash @40ºC, Line Dry, Used Domestic Washing Machine Miele @ 1400RPM, Washing  Time 02.00 Hours, Ariel Reference Detergent Solution With 4.0 Kg Load. 

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
Spirality 0.0% 3%

03. Bursting Strength 

Test Method: ISO 13938-2:2019,used 7.3 cm2 dia 

Test Stage: As Received Stage 

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
Average Over 600 kPa 300 kPa

04. Pilling Resistance (Martindale Method) 

Test Method: ISO 12945-2:2020,Loading Weight 155±1gm 

Test Condition: As Received Stage 

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
After 1000 cycle
Grade 3
Note : Fuzzy Effects were observed

 Visual Assessment  

Grade Description
No Change
Slight Surface fuzzing and/or partially formed pills.
Moderate surface fuzzing and/or moderate pilling. Pills of varying size and density covering the specimen surface.
Distinct surface fuzzing and/or distinct pilling. Pills of varying size and density covering a large proportion of the  specimen surface.
Dense surface fuzzing and/or severe pilling. Pills of varying size and density covering the whole of the specimen  surface.

05. Mass Per Unit Area 

Test Method: EN 12127:1997, Modified.  

Test Stage: As Received Stage

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement 
Average 194.7 g/m2180 g/m2(±3%)

06. Color Fastness To Washing 

Test Method: ISO 105 CO8: 2010 

Test Condition: Temperature at 40 degree, Time 30 min, Detergent 4g/l ECE,1 gm/l Sodium Per borate and 0.15gm/l(100% Activity)  TEAD With 25 Steel Balls 

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
Color Change 4
Color staining 4
-Acetate 4-5
-Cotton 4-5
-Nylon 4-5
-Polyester 4-5
-Acrylic 4-5
-Wool 4-5

07. Color Fastness To Rubbing 

Test Method: ISO 105 X12 :2016 

Test Stage: As Received Stage 

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
Dry Rub 4-5 4
Wet Rub 4-5 3

08. Color Fastness To Water 

Test Method: ISO 105 E01:2013 

Test Condition: Temperature at 37±2ºC, Time 4 hours. 

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
Color Change 4
Color staining 4
-Acetate 4-5
-Cotton 4-5
-Nylon 4-5
-Polyester 4-5
-Acrylic 4-5
-Wool 4-5

09. Color Fastness To Perspiration 

Test Method: ISO 105 E04:2013 

Test Condition: Temperature at 37±2ºC, Time 4 hours.

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
Acid Alkaline
Color Change 4
Color staining 4
-Acetate 4-5 4-5
-Cotton 4-5 4-5
-Nylon 4-5 4-5
-Polyester 4-5 4-5
-Acrylic 4-5 4-5
-Wool 4-5 4-5

10. Fiber Analysis 

Test Method: ISO 1833:2011 

Test Stage: As Received Stage 

Sample (A) Result Client Requirement
Identification of fibers  Analyzed fibersNylon + Elastane (+3% to -3%)
Nylon 91.5% /
Elastane 8.5%
Fiber Label Recommended 92% Nylon 8% Elastane
Note: Based On Moisture Regain Value According To Regulation ( EU ) No 1007/2011

11. PHValue of Aqueous Extract 

(Test Method: EN ISO 3071:2020) 

SL. No. Material Description Result Client Specification
A1 Black Base Fabric 6.11 4.0-7.5
Note:   Temperature of the Solution: 22⁰c  Type of the Solution Used: 0.1M KCl Solution.

Overall Comments of Nyon fabric knitting and dyeing process:

After analyzing all the test reports I can say that the GSM of the fabric is low. Normally we tolerate +/-  3%.  Bet

Solution:  There are many ways to solve the problem. During geat setting, We have to control the GSM.

Because: After wash and relaxed condition gsm will be excessively high. So that we have to careful during heat setting.

The video of the final finish fabric (Dyeing of nylon)

The video will show how the finish fabric is.

Nylon fabric vedio

Conclusion:

I am sharing here my full dyeing of the nylon experiment. I discussed the full knitting and dying process with a flow chart. A complete practical Gide line is available here. Of course, everyone can ask me any process-related question in the comment section. I will answer the entire question.  As a textile engineer, I think I can solve problems from my 10 years of practical experience.

Reference:

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