Fleece Fabric || Dyeing, Finishing, and Testing Of 100% Cotton Fleece Fabric With A Complete Practical Experiment

Fleece fabric is a type of Knit fabric that can make from different fibers like wool, cotton, or other synthetic materials. It is a soft, lightweight fabric that is often used for jackets, blankets, and other clothing items. Fleece fabric is known for its warmth and comfort, and it is often used in colder weather climates. Some people think that “can I dye fleece fabric?’. The answer is yes, We can dye. Let’s discuss.

fleece fabric
A Fleece fabric example

Here I am discussing the fleece fabric dyeing process, Dyeing flow chat, finishing process, finishing flow chart, and different testing. All the processes are 100% practical.

The specialty of fleece fabric:

  • It is a three yarn special thick fabric.
  • It is a super soft fabric.
  • Durable and has high insulation value.
  • This fabric is used to make jackets, sweaters, and blankets.

Complete (yarn to garments) target flow chart of fleece fabric:

Grey Yarn

Knitting

Dyeing

Finishing

Cutting

Sewing (Garments)

Let’s start my practical experiment which I did myself.

Target fleece fabric Parameter:

BuyerPractical Textile
Fabric TypeFleece
Composition100% Cotton
Color NameBeen
Shade%5.16%
Required Dia175 CM Open
Required GSM310
Special NoteGarments Wash 

Yarn Information( By which I knitted this fabric):

Yarn count and Type32/1 Organic cotton+12/1 Carded cotton
Yarn composition100 % Organic cotton
Yarn lotxyz+xyz
Yarn BrandA reputed company

Knitting Parameter of target fleece fabric:

Machine  Dia + Gauge30+20
Total needle1882 Pcs
Stitch length4.5+3.5+1.55
Machine NoXYZ
Machine BrandJiunlong
Machine RPM19.5
Grey Width107 cm Tube
Grey GSM248
Gray Wash
Gray Wash GSM

Fleece fabric dyeing:

Dyeing 100% cotton fleece fabric is a special experimental procedure. Where it is dyed with a reactive dye and reactive dyeing process. Let’s start:

Flow chart of 100% cotton fleece fabric dyeing:

Grey fabric from knitting

Batching

Load to dyeing machine

Scouring+Bleaching

Bio polishing

Dyeing

Soaping

Softener

Unload

Delivery to finishing

Batching:

Here I collect the grey fabric from the knitting department. Prepare the batch according to dyeing mache (No. of Nozzle and loading capacity). here we prepare a batch card that consists of all parameters of knitting, dyeing, and finishing. Now batch is delivered to dyeing machine.

Dyeing Recipe:

Here I create a recipe and calculate all the dyes and chemicals. I am showing you the brand name of dyes & chemicals. The given dyes % depends on the targeting depth of shade and chemical dosing depends on chemical supplier recommendation.

SL#  Name of the chemicalsG/Liter%Req’d Qty. In KgIssues Qty. Remarks
Pretreatment :
1 Anticreasing agent 1.0    
2Detergent0.80   
3Sequestering agent2.00  98*50
4Caustic soda2.0   
5H2O22.50   
6      
7      
 Peroxide killer0.15   
8Acetic Acid1.00   
9      
10      
11      
12      
Dyeing :
13Leveling agent2.00   
14Anti creasing agent2.00   
15      
16Golden-yellow -ss 0.9%  
17Dy: deep –red -dr 0.66%   
18No: navy-wb 3.6%  
19      
20Gluber Salt80   
21Soda Ash Lt20   
After Treatment :
22Soaping agent0.80   
23Leveling agent0.5   
24Anti creasing agent1.00   
25      
26Fixing agent1.00   
27      
28Softener1.00   

100% cotton fleece fabric dyeing process:

This process is like a 100% cotton fabric dyeing process. I discussed it in my previous article. Now I am showing you the process which I used for this batch. Process steps are below:

Scouring & Bleaching

Detergent + Anti-creasing agent = Inject

Temp 40⁰C= Fabric Load

Caustic soda Dosing

Temperature 60⁰C, Run=20 Min

Temperature 70⁰C

Sequestering agent + H2O2 Dosing 5 Minute

Temp to  98⁰C & run= 40 Minute

Cooling at 78⁰C

Sample check

If the sample ok then Drain

Normal Hot 70⁰C, run =10min

Peroxide killer  60⁰C, run=10 Minute

Drain

Naturalization with acid

Control the ph=4.5 And temperatue=55⁰C

The enzyme (Bio polishing) Inject

Run for 50min

Sample check (Check hairiness)

If ok then raise the temperature to 80⁰C

Run for 10min

Drain

Wash 10min

Dyeing

Control temperature 60⁰C

Leveling PH check 6.20

Leveling Dosing 60⁰C, Run= 3 Minute

Color Dosing 30 Mints

Runtime 20 mint

Salt Dosing 10 Minute

Runtime 10 Minute

Salt Sample check + Fabric Quality Check

1st 1% Soda dosing 15 minute

Runtime 15 minute

2nd 99% % Soda dosing 20  minute

Runtime 20 minute

Sample check If ok then

Bath Drop

Normal hot 70⁰C run =10min

Wash clear

Ascitic acid inject to neutralize the batch

Wash and drain

After Treatment

Soaping inject

Rise the temperature to 90⁰C, Run=10min

Drain and wash

Dossing the fixing agent=5min

Runtime=15Min

Wash clear

Ph control 5

Softener Dossing 5min

Runtime 10min

Check the softness of the fabric, if ok then drain and fill

Unload

Delivery to finishing department

Comments on dyeing:

It is so easy and basic process. To get dyeing faults free better results to follow the A to Z process. All dyes percentages will the according to your lab and chemical dosing depends on your chemical supplyer.

Finishing of 100% Cotton fleece fabric:

After completing the dyeing process fabric comes to the finishing department, to dry the fabric, and control the dia, GSM, and Shrinkage.

Flow chart of fleece fabric finishing:

Collect fabric from dyeing

Slitting

Stenter

Brush

Sharing

Stenter

Compacting

Check all the quality parameters and sent the fabric to the testing lab

If ok then delivery to cutting

Slitting:

This is the first process of finishing. The fabric is opened here. Because we have to use Open stenter and compacting machine. I am sharing the data which I got during slitting:

Machine Speed30
Padder pressure1.5 kg
Over Feed 
Fabric In Diameter169 Cm
Fabric Out Diameter170 Cm

Stenter:

NameStenterDry Time
Width set168 
Over Feed59% 
Temperature120 
RPM/ Speed14 
Padder Pressure3+2 
Vibrationblank 
Softener TypeCationic 
After Dry Width200 
After Dry GSM
   

Brushing:

L. Pile:1.0/1.0 
L.C. Pile 0.2/0.2
L. Tension 6/7
L. Drum RPM 100/90
U.Pile 0.3/0.2
U.C.pile
U. Tension6/7
U Dram RPM100/90 
Machine speed17 

Stenter:

NameStenterDry Time
Width set168 
Over Feed59% 
Temperature120 
RPM/ Speed14 
Padder Pressure3+2 
Vibrationblank 
Softener TypeCationic 
After Dry Width175 for 175 B dia= 200
After Dry GSM290 For 310B. gsm=370
   

Compacting:

Stanter/Dryer Compacting 
Width set  
Over FeedTemperature120
TemperatureSteam Pressure30
RPM/ SpeedWidth set170
Padder PressureOver feed%35%
VibrationRPM/Speed12
Softener TypeCompaction%
After Dry WidthAfter Width175 f 154
After Dry GSMAfter GSM310 f 194
  Wash gsm322

Shrinkage Test Report:

Final width=175   f 154                                    Final GSM=310 f 322

Shrinkage with tumble dry:

Length=-1.66 %

Width=-4.48%

SP%=2%

Shrinkage of line dry:

Length=-2.8%

Width=-8%

SP%=0%

Comments on overall finishing:

Palla wash Dia= 149 GSM=322

So that dia= -26cm Which is not good. Need to be careful during finishing and knitting parameters.

Testing of 100% cotton fleece fabric

There are many physical and chemical tests available in the world. No. of Test selection depends on the requirement of the buyer. Here the types of tests I have done, are listed below with results. all the tests and test results are actual. Overall comments on the testing will be at the end of the test.

Sl. No.Test NameResults (A)
01Dimensional Change in WashingPass
02Spirality After WashingPass
03Color Fastness to WashingPass
04Color Fastness to RubbingPass
05Color Fastness to PerspirationPass
06Bursting StrengthPass
07Pilling ResistancePass
08Mass Per Unit AreaPass
No of test

01. Dimensional Change in Washing

Test Method : ISO 5077+ ISO 3759+ ISO 6330: 2012

Test Condition: Normal Program, Machine Wash@40°C, Tumble Dry, Used domestic washing machine Miele, 25 gram Ariel Reference  Detergent with 3.5kg load.

Sample (A)After One Wash 
DirectionResultClient Requirement
Length-2.10%±5%
Width0.80% 
Table of test results

Remark: (+) Means Extension And (-) Means Shrinkage

02. Spirality After Washing

Test Method: ISO 16322-3: 2005

Test Condition: Normal Program, Machine Wash@40°C, Tumble Dry, Used domestic washing machine Miele, 25 gram Ariel Reference  Detergent with 3.5kg load.

Sample (A)ResultClient Requirement
Spirality0.0%Max 4%
Table of test results

03. Color Fastness To Washing

Test Method: ISO 105 CO6-A1S:2010

Test Condition: Temperature at 40 degrees, Time 30 min, Detergent 4g/l ECE With 10 Steel Balls

Sample (A)ResultClient Requirement
Color Change43-4
Color staining 3-4
-Acetate4-5 
-Cotton4-5 
-Nylon4-5 
-Polyester4-5 
-Acrylic4-5 
-Wool4-5 
Table of test results

04. Color Fastness To Rubbing

Test Method: ISO 105 X12:2016

Test Stage: As Received Stage

Sample (A)ResultClient Requirement
Dry Rub4-53-4
Wet Rub43
Table of test results

05. Color Fastness To Perspiration

Test Method: ISO 105 E04:2013

Test Condition: Temperature at 37±2 degrees, Time 4 hours.

Sample (A)ResultResultClient Requirement
 AcidAlkaline 
Color Change444
Color staining 4 43-4
-Acetate4-54-5 
-Cotton4-54-5 
-Nylon4-54-5 
-Polyester4-54-5 
-Acrylic4-54-5 
-Wool4-54-5 
Table of test results

06. Bursting Strength

Test Method: ISO 13938-2:2019, used 50 cm2 dia

Test Stage: As Received Stage

Sample (A)ResultClient Requirement
Average199.9 kPa125 kPa
Table of test results

07. Resistance Of Pilling (ICI Box Method)

Test Method: EN ISO 12945-1:2020

Test Condition: As Received Stage

Sample (A)ResultResultClient Requirement
After 10,800 CycleLength DirectionWidth Direction 
Grade443-4
Note: Fuzzy effects are observed 
Table of test results

 Visual Assessment 

Grade Description
5No Change
4Slight Surface fuzzing and/or partially formed pills.
3Moderate surface fuzzing and/or moderate pilling. Pills of varying sizes and densities cover the specimen surface.
2Distinct surface fuzzing and/or distinct pilling. Pills of varying size and density cover a large proportion of the specimen surface.
1Dense surface fuzzing and/or severe pilling. Pills of varying size and density cover the whole of the specimen surface.
Table of test results

08. Mass Per Unit Area

Test Method: EN 12127: 1998

Test Stage: As Received Stage

Sample (A)ResultClient Requirement
Average315.0 g/m2310 g/m2(±5%)
Table of test results

Test Comments:

All the test result is good. We can follow the overall process to achieve buyers’ requirements.

Final word:

Yes, we are at the end of the article. The overall fleece fabric and its knitting, dyeing, finishing, and testing process and parameters are actual. Everyone can follow this process and parameter. But don’t miss following the comments.

You may read some other articles:

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